Today the particle physics report 2010 was released. I haven't read the full document (around 140 pages), but from the press release it is obvious that US is planning to regain the lost territory after the cancelation of the Superconducting Super Collider and will actively back the construction of the ILC in the US.
On the astro side, the LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope), an 8.4 meter telescope with an amazing 10 square-degree was among the proposed projects. Similar in purpose to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with an obviously higher deepness, showing around 10 times more galaxies than a similar SDSS field, to get an idea of the data that the LSST will collect take a look at the DLS site which is doing a similar survey with a much smaller telescope (around 4 meters) and a much smaller field. The most impressive part of this is that LSST will cover 50 000 times (yes 50 000) the area of the images of the DLS and in 5 bands!!! Such amount data will change astronomy even more than the almighty SDSS.